Saturday, August 22, 2009


I. Rhetorical Fallacies
   a.) incorrect obversion
   b.) incorrect conversion
   c.) The fallacy of accent
   d.) The fallacy of amphibology

II. Logical Fallacies
   a.) Formal Fallacies
        1.) formal fallacies in categorical syllogisms
        2.) formal fallacies in disjunctive syllogisms
        3.) formal fallacies in hypothetical syllogisms

   b.) Material Fallacies
        1.) The fallacy of equivocation
              1.1) The fallacy of quantity
                     1.1.1.) fallacy of composition
                     1.1.2.) fallacy of division

              1.2) The fallacy of quality
                     1.2.1.) fallacy of simple accident
                     1.2.2.) fallacy of converse accident
                     1.2.3.) fallacy of specific accident

        2.) The fallacy of presumption
             2.1) Begging the question
                     2.1.1) Assumptio non probata
                     2.1.2) Circulus in probando

            2.2) Ignorantio elenchi
                     2.2.1) Argumentum ad hominem
                     2.2.2) Argumentum ad populum
                     2.2.3) Argumentum ad ignorantiam
                     2.2.4) Argumentum ad verecundiam
                     2.2.5) Argumentum ad judicium
                     2.2.6) Argumentum ad baculum
                     2.2.7) Argumentum ex concessio
            2.3) Complex Question

            2.4) Non Sequitur
                    2.4.1) Simple non sequitur
                    2.4.2) False cause-post hoc. ergo propter hoc


A. Simple Tenses
1.) Present Tense - describes what is happening, what is true at the
                              moment, and what is consistently true

a.) describing what is happening now, in the present
b.) describing a habitual or regularly occurring action
c.) expressing a general truth or widely help opinion
d.) describing a fixed- time future event
e.) discussing "timeless" events and activities

2.) Past Tense - tells of an action completed or a condition created
3.) Future Tense - indicates action yet to be taken or a condition not
                             yet experienced
B.) Perfect Tenses
-uses the past participle together with auxiliary verbs
-generally describes actions or occurences that have 
                           already been completed or that will be completed before
                           a more recent point in time
1.) Present Perfect Tense - allows that action begun and completed in
                    the past also continues-or its effects continue into the 

have + past participle

2.) Past Perfect Tense - indicates that an action was completed before 
                   another one took place. When two actions both started and 
                   stopped in the past, the earlier action uses had as a helper.
had + past participle

3.) Future Perfect Tense - indicates that an action will be complete 
                  before some specified or predictable time
will have/shall have + past participle