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FALLACIES

I. Rhetorical Fallacies
   a.) incorrect obversion
   b.) incorrect conversion
   c.) The fallacy of accent
   d.) The fallacy of amphibology

II. Logical Fallacies
   a.) Formal Fallacies
        1.) formal fallacies in categorical syllogisms
        2.) formal fallacies in disjunctive syllogisms
        3.) formal fallacies in hypothetical syllogisms

   b.) Material Fallacies
        1.) The fallacy of equivocation
              1.1) The fallacy of quantity
                     1.1.1.) fallacy of composition
                     1.1.2.) fallacy of division

              1.2) The fallacy of quality
                     1.2.1.) fallacy of simple accident
                     1.2.2.) fallacy of converse accident
                     1.2.3.) fallacy of specific accident

        2.) The fallacy of presumption
             2.1) Begging the question
                     2.1.1) Assumptio non probata
                     2.1.2) Circulus in probando


            2.2) Ignorantio elenchi
        …

VERB TENSES

A. Simple Tenses
1.) Present Tense - describes what is happening, what is true at the
                              moment, and what is consistently true

a.) describing what is happening now, in the present b.) describing a habitual or regularly occurring action c.) expressing a general truth or widely help opinion d.) describing a fixed- time future event e.) discussing "timeless" events and activities

2.) Past Tense - tells of an action completed or a condition created 3.) Future Tense - indicates action yet to be taken or a condition not
                             yet experienced B.) Perfect Tenses -uses the past participle together with auxiliary verbs -generally describes actions or occurences that have                             already been completed or thatwill be completed before                            a more recent point in time 1.) Present Perfect Tense - allows that action begun and completed in                     the past also continues-or its effects continue into th…
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H1N1 Virus or "swine flu"... (..got this from a close friend=D sorry if there's no acknowledgment of the source...)

What is swine flu? Swine flu is a respiratory disease, caused by influenza type A which infects pigs. There are many types, and the infection is constantly changing. Until now it has not normally infected humans, but the latest form clearly does, and can be spread from person to person - probably through coughing and sneezing. What is new about this type of swine flu? The World Health Organization has confirmed that at least some of the human cases are a never-before-seen version of the H1N1 strain of influenza type A. H1N1 is the same strain which causes seasonal outbreaks of flu in humans on a regular basis. But this latest version of H1N1 is different: it contains genetic material that is typically found in strains of the virus that affect humans, birds and swine. Flu viruses have the ability to swap genetic components with each other, and it seems likely th…
Does Machiavelli support Liberal Interventionism? After its inception in the 1980’s, the principle of liberal intervention has now become widely accepted and practiced by dominant (democratic) states and international organizations—such as the United Nations and North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The deployment of peacekeeping forces, armed forces or any foreign policy geared towards intervening in the domestic affairs of state in conflict have become frequently practiced by dominant democratic states such as the United States of America, France, United Kingdom or even UN. Although intervention as it is explicitly manifested by crossing borders is already understood as a violation of state sovereignty, states have become no longer reluctant to engage in such act for the sake of promoting human rights. As the principle of ‘liberal intervention’ has already been established in the 1980’s by Paris-based intellectuals—Mario Bettati, an international law professor and physician-activist Ber…

“Justice and the Harmonious Society: Platonic and Contemporary Ideas”

As one of his profound works, The Republic manifest Plato’s proposal of an ideal society. Notwithstanding the emphasis on man, it presented justice as a “‘universal principle’ laid down at the foundation of the commonwealth” (Ebenstein 2000, p. 50). Hence, the focal discussion of The Republic revolves around questions on justice—‘what is it and why one should be just’. However, going beyond Plato’s ideas, there are also contemporary ideas on justice—for which some stand in contrast with the kind of justice purported in The Republic, such as Rawls’ Theory on Justice and Michael Walzer, Spheres of Justice.

As to substantiate his own theory, Plato presented the conventional theories of justice for which he all rejected. These were represented on the views espoused by Cephalus—that “justice means honesty and rendering what is due to gods and men”, Polemarchus—that “it is helping one’s friends and harming one’s enemies”, Thrasymarchus—that it serves the interest of the stronger, and Glauco…